Deprivation strongly linked to mortality

Report from the Office for National Statistics reveals “sizeable and highly significant” absolute and relative inequalities in avoidable mortality between those living in the most and least deprived areas.

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Main points

  • Avoidable, amenable and preventable mortality is strongly related to area deprivation in England and in Wales.
  • In England in 2015 there were 16,686 deaths from avoidable causes in the most deprived areas whereas there were less than half that number (7,247 deaths) in the least deprived areas.
  • In the most deprived areas of Wales there were 1,054 deaths from avoidable causes in 2015, compared with 509 deaths in the least deprived areas.
  • Absolute and relative inequalities in avoidable mortality between those living in the most and least deprived areas were sizeable and highly significant, but the excess was larger for males than females in all cases.
  • The largest relative inequality in avoidable mortality was for deaths from respiratory diseases which were 4.8 times (males) and 7.7 times (females) more likely in the most deprived populations compared with the least deprived.
  • The largest absolute difference in avoidable mortality between the most and least deprived deciles was from cardiovascular disease and cancer.

Full report: Measuring Socioeconomic inequalities in avoidable mortality in England and Wales: 2015

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Experimental vaping does not turn into regular use among young people

Surveys across the UK show most e-cigarette experimentation does not turn into regular use | International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health| Story via OnMedica

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A study, which questioned more than 60,000 young people, found that most e-cigarette experimentation among young people does not turn into regular use. The findings also revealed that levels of regular vaping in young people who have never smoked remains very low.

The work which was part-funded by Cancer Research UK is a collaboration between the UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies, Public Health England, Action on Smoking and Health (ASH), and the DECIPHer Centre at the University of Cardiff.

Full reference: Bauld, L. et al.  Young People’s Use of E-Cigarettes across the United Kingdom: Findings from Five Surveys 2015–2017. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 973.

 

Mental health services: cost-effective commissioning

Return on investment resources to support local commissioners in designing and implementing mental health and wellbeing support services. | Public Health England

Public Health England has produced a series of resources around mental health services.

The commissioning report summarizes the evidence on promoting good mental health and reducing the impact of poor mental health, generated through a rapid evidence review.

The return on investment (ROI) tool and user guide:

  • builds on the evidence in the commissioning report
  • can be adapted to local conditions
  • presents results showing the economic benefits of each intervention
  • show you how to use the ROI tool

The barriers and facilitator report identifies issues that can make the commissioning of mental health and wellbeing interventions easier or more difficult in a local area.

Local authorities, clinical commissioning groups, Health and Wellbeing Boards and their local partners (for example schools, employers, police) can use these set of resources to improve the provision of mental health services.

The documnets can be accessedd via Public Health England

Psychosocial pathways and health outcomes

Overview of current evidence about the relationships between social determinants, psychosocial factors and health outcomes. | Public Health England

This report highlights the current evidence that exists about the relationships between social determinants, psychosocial factors and health outcomes.

It also provides a conceptual framework that focuses on the psychosocial pathways between factors associated with social, economic and environmental conditions, psychological and psychobiological processes, health behaviours and mental and physical health outcomes.

Better mental health: JSNA toolkit

This toolkit links mental health data, policy and knowledge to help planners understand needs within the local population and assess local services.

The guide accompanies the Mental Health and Wellbeing JSNA fingertips profile.

It includes short, bite-sized sections which help people to develop a picture of mental health needs in a local area. The guide begins with sections on understanding place and understanding people. These focus on understanding risk, wellbeing, prevention and community resilience in the local population.

Later sections cover the mental health care pathway, following a life course approach. These include the perinatal period, children and young people, working age adults and older people.

Each section follows a similar structure:

  • introduction to the topic
  • list of potential questions a JSNA may attempt to answer
  • overview of some relevant policy and guidance
  • list of available national data sources
  • ideas for sources of local data
  • links to relevant evidence and further information

Documents can be accessed via Public Health England

Improving the public’s mental health

Public Health England has published two resources looking at mental health promotion and prevention of mental ill-health

Stocktake of local mental health prevention planning arrangements is a high level summary of how local areas are currently incorporating mental health prevention in their planning processes.

The stocktake was undertaken by the Kings Fund on commission from Public Health England. The findings are based on analysis of key planning documents in 35 local areas. This included a random sample of 16 areas across England and 19 areas selected as possible examples of transferable effective practice.

Prevention concordat for better mental health: planning resource

This resource has been developed to help local areas put in place effective arrangements to promote good mental health and prevent mental health problems. It does so by offering a 5-part framework of focus for effective planning for better mental health.

It also highlights a range of actions and interventions that local areas can take to improve mental health and tailor their approach. This includes illustration through practice examples and links to further supporting resources. There is also a resource infographic available to download.

Sexual health, reproductive health and HIV: commissioning review

Findings and action plan from a national survey of commissioning arrangements for sexual health, reproductive health and HIV. | Public Health England

In 2016 Public Health England (PHE) and the Association of Directors of Public Health (ADPH), supported by NHS England and NHS Clinical Commissioners, carried out a survey of local authorities, NHS England and Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) to highlight areas of challenge within the commissioning framework.

The survey findings form the basis of an action plan published within the review. Appendix 1 provides a detailed analysis of the survey responses and appendix 2 details the action plan to respond to the challenges identified.

 

Full report: Sexual health, reproductive health and HIV: commissioning review