Factors influencing eating behaviours in overweight and obese South Asian men living in the UK

It is widely recognised that South Asian men living in the UK are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than their white British counterparts | BMJ Open

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Despite this, limited data have been published quantifying current dietary intake patterns and qualitatively exploring eating behaviours in this population. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess diet, (2) explore perceptions of T2DM, (3) investigate factors influencing eating behaviours in overweight/obese South Asian men and (4) determine the suitability of the UK Diet and Diabetes Questionnaire (UKDDQ) for use in this population.

Many of the areas of dietary improvement and factors affecting eating behaviours identified in this study are similar to those observed in the general UK population. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in particular was high; given the association between their consumption and the risk of T2DM, this should be an area of primary focus for healthcare professionals. Nevertheless, there are sociocultural factors unique to this population that need to be considered when designing culturally specific programs to reduce the development of T2DM in this high-risk population.

Full reference: Emadian, A. et al. (2017) Dietary intake and factors influencing eating behaviours in overweight and obese South Asian men living in the UK: mixed method study. BMJ Open. 7:e016919

What makes us healthy?

The Health Foundation has published What makes us healthy?

This infographic is part of a new series of infographics and accompanying blogs and commentaries to describe and explain the social determinants of health in an accessible and engaging way. This infographic shows the extent to which health is primarily shaped by factors outside the direct influence of healthcare and invites people to look at this bigger picture.

Drinking coffee may help prevent liver cancer, study suggests

People who drink more coffee are less likely to develop liver cancer, an analysis of data from 26 studies has found | Story via The Guardian | BMJ

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Researchers have found that people who drink more coffee are less likely to develop hepatocellular cancer (HCC), the most common form of primary liver cancer – and the effect was also found in decaffeinated coffee.

Experts from the University of Southampton and the University of Edinburgh examined data from 26 studies involving more than 2.25 million participants.  Compared with people who drank no coffee, those who drank one cup a day had a 20% lower risk of developing HCC, according to the study, published in the journal BMJ Open.

Those who consumed two cups a day had a 35% reduced risk and for those who drank five cups, the risk was halved. They found the protective effect for decaf was “smaller and less certain than for caffeinated coffee”

Full story via The Guardian

Full reference: Kennedy OJ, Roderick P, Buchanan R, et al. Coffee, including caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis

‘Pro-vegetarian’ diet could halve chance of obesity

Study describes benefits of the ‘flexitarian’ diet: basically vegetarian, with meat and fish consumed occasionally | The Guardian Health

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A diet which reduces or even excludes meat and animal produce in favour of vegetables, fruit and grains could halve people’s chances of becoming obese, according to new research.

A study carried out in Spain describes the benefits of what researchers call a “pro-vegetarian” diet which does not exclude meat and dairy products but reduces them. It has also been called a “flexitarian” diet – basically vegetarian, with meat and fish consumed occasionally.

Some 16,000 university graduates were tracked from 1999 for 10 years, by which time 584 were obese, according to findings presented at the European Congress on Obesity in Porto, Portugal.

Read the full news story here

Supported web-based programme helps people lose weight in the short term

A web-based programme (POWeR) with nurse support helped about 30% of people lose at least 5% of their body weight, maintained for at least 12 months. By comparison, twenty percent of people achieved this with an online information sheet only.  | National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)

weights-1501439_1920POWer+ helped more people achieve short-term weight loss but the average weight loss of about 3-4 kg after 12 months was statistically similar for those given information only. The healthy eating online materials tested had previously been shown to help people to control their weight, without expert advice.

This NIHR research showed that the web programme, with phone or email support from nurses, had a modest benefit and was probably cost-effective.  It represents one option that could be offered to patients.

Full reference: Little P, Stuart B, Hobbs FR, et al. Randomised controlled trial and economic analysis of an internet-based weight management programme: POWeR+ (PositiveOnline Weight Reduction). Health Technol Assess. 2017;21(4):1-62.

Community weight loss programmes should be more widely available

Community weight loss programmes, such as Weight Watchers, are effective at helping people to lose weight, according to research published in The Lancet.

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A study published in this weeks issue of The Lancet  found that a three-month weight loss programme helps people lose weight, but a one-year programme helps people lose more weight for longer and reduces their risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The paper suggests that wider availability of these programmes could help people avoid metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, and may save the NHS money in the long run.

In the study the authors compared the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of three treatment options: referral to Weight Watchers for three months, referral to Weight Watchers for one year, and a brief intervention (one-off advice together with a self-help booklet).

1,267 overweight or obese adults from 23 GP clinics across the UK were recruited and randomly allocated to one of the three interventions. Over a two-year follow-up, those who were referred to Weight Watchers lost more weight than those who were in the self-help group. And those in the one-year programme lost more weight than those in the three-month programme.

At two years, all groups had regained some of the weight, but those given a year-long programme were still lighter than the other groups.

Full reference: Ahern, A.L. et al. Extended and standard duration weight-loss programme referrals for adults in primary care (WRAP): a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet. Published online 03 May 2017

Health matters: obesity and the food environment

This resource outlines how councils and partners can help small food outlets and schools offer healthier food to reduce obesity levels | Public Health England

Nearly two-thirds of adults (63%) in England were classed as being overweight or obese in 2015.  In England, the proportion who were categorised as obese increased from 13.2% of men in 1993 to 26.9% in 2015 and from 16.4% of women in 1993 to 26.8% in 2015. The rate of increase has slowed down since 2001, although the trend is still upwards.

In 2015 to 2016, 19.8% of children aged 10 to 11 were obese and a further 14.3% were overweight. Of children aged 4 to 5, 9.3% were obese and another 12.8% were overweight. This means a third of 10 to 11 year olds and over a fifth of 4 to 5 year olds were overweight or obese.  In summary, nearly a third of children aged 2 to 15 are overweight or obese and younger generations are becoming obese at earlier ages and staying obese for longer.

Health matters: obesity and the food environment covers the following:

Scale of the obesity problem

Factors behind the rise in obesity levels

Improving everyone’s access to healthier food choices

How local authorities can help businesses offer healthier food and drink

National policies to tackle obesity

Call to action

5 Local food

Image source: http://www.gov.uk