US research underlines the importance of screening for risk factors earlier in life

According to US research published in the American Heart Association’s journal, Circulation, obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors may have a greater role in cardiac arrest in the young than previously understood. 

While sports activity often garners attention in cases of sudden cardiac arrest in younger patients, it was cited only in a small percentage of those ages 5 to 34 in the study, published in Circulation, a journal from the American Heart Association.

heart-2211180_1920Instead, investigators found an unexpectedly high prevalence of standard cardiovascular risk factors among the young who suffered from sudden cardiac arrest, a disorder that can cause instantaneous death. Combinations of obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes and smoking were found in nearly two-thirds of cases studied.

Full story at Science Daily 

Abstract

Advertisements

Participation in exercise programme improves BMI of US school children

School children in the US, (n= 707) who participated in an short-term  exercise programme experienced  improvements in  their body mass index (BMI) scores,  significantly different than the comparison group. This group also had higher odds of being in a lower BMI category at follow-up; significantly different than the comparison group.

running-2837486_1920The 12-week initiative ran for an hour three times a week.  Each session started with a warm-up, followed by a running activity, and incorporated a skills-based approach to teach a new skill each week. During the cool- down session there was discussion on nutrition for pupils.

By the end of the the programme the child participants had better body mass index scores, than the non- participants in the control group.  There was also an additional benefit for those children who participated three times a week as their focus on schoolwork improved, and those who attended two sessions a week also had notable improvements in their mood and energy levels.

The full story can be read at Science Daily 

The journal article is published online and is available here 

Full reference: Whooten, R. C. et al. |Effects of Before-School Physical Activity on Obesity Prevention and Wellness | American Journal of Preventative Medicine | 2018|  doi:  10.1016/j.amepre.2018.01.017

Adult obesity trends for England map

Public Health England Obesity Risk Factors Intelligence team have published a moving map showing the change in prevalence of adult obesity for each region in England from 1993-2016 based on Health Survey for England (HSE) data.

This is a useful presentational tool for local, regional and national practitioners and policy makers as it gives a visual representation of the scale of obesity in adults across England and how this has progressed over the years. It can be downloaded and used freely with acknowledgement to Public Health England.

The map along with other PHE obesity–related resources can be downloaded here

 

Community-based interventions for the treatment of overweight and obese adolescents

This systematic review aims to evaluate recent effective and scalable community-based weight management programs for adolescents (13–17 years) who are overweight or obese | Obesity Reviews

weight-2036971_1920 (2)

Adolescent obesity is a risk factor for obesity and other chronic disease in adulthood. Evidence for the effectiveness of community-based obesity treatment programs for adolescents is required to inform policy and clinical decisions.

Eight databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Informit, and Scopus) were searched for studies published between January 2011–2 March 2017 which are scalable in a community setting and reported primary outcome measures relating to weight.

Following deduplication, 10,074 records were screened by title/abstract with 31 publications describing 21 programs included in this review. Reduction in adolescent BMIz ranged from 2 to 9% post-program and from 2 to 11% after varied lengths of follow-up. Study quality varied, and findings are limited by the risk of selection and retention bias in the included studies. Factors including the effectiveness and acceptability to the target population must be considered when selecting such community programs.

Full reference: Moores, J. et al. | A systematic review of community-based interventions for the treatment of adolescents with overweight and obesity | Obesity Reviews | 17 January 2018

Trends in child BMI

This report uses National Child Measurement Programme  data to examine the changes in children’s body mass index (BMI) between 2006 to 2007 and 2015 to 2016

The report explores trends in obesity, overweight, excess weight and underweight prevalence, as well as changes in mean BMI over time. It is aimed at local authorities and other organisations who want to examine detailed trends in child weight category prevalence over time, and how these vary by health inequality.

Trends within different socioeconomic and ethnic groups are examined to determine whether existing health inequalities are widening or becoming smaller.

The report is accompanied by a summary of main findings and a supplementary dataset.

National Child Measurement Programme: changes in children’s body mass index between 2006 to 2007 and 2015 to 2016:

See also: National child measurement programme

Intensive lifestyle interventions can help obese young people lose weight

O’Connor EA, Evans CV, Burda BU, et al. Screening for Obesity and Intervention for Weight Management in Children and Adolescents: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. 2017;317(23):2427-44.

BikeObese children and adolescents can lose up to seven pounds over six to 12 months when they engage in at least 52 hours of behaviour-based lifestyle interventions. Minimal benefit was seen with shorter contact time, with less than 25 hours ineffective. The control group gained weight.

Rising obesity in the young is a global concern, which may lead to high rates of obesity-related diseases in adulthood. This review identified trials covering various weight management strategies. Lifestyle-based-interventions with sufficient contact time – as recommended by UK guidelines – showed clear benefits with no evidence of harms.

Investing in effective strategies to manage child obesity will ultimately save healthcare costs. Behaviour-based support should now be assessed for long-term weight loss and maintenance.

The evidence is still lacking whether universal child screening for obesity should be performed in the UK.

‘Upselling’ adding to the UK obesity crisis

Published by the Royal Society for Public Health and Slimming World, ‘Size Matters’ reveals that the average person consumes an additional 330 calories each week as a result of businesses upselling high calorie food and drink

This report, which includes a survey of 2,055 UK adults, shows that consumers face an average of 106 verbal pushes towards unhealthy choices each year as they are asked whether they would like to upgrade to larger meals and drinks, add high calorie toppings or sides to their order or take advantage of special offers on unhealthy food and drink.

It reveals that, in the course of a week, upselling techniques used by businesses resulted in 34% of people buying a larger coffee than intended, 33% upgrading to a large meal in a fast food restaurant, 36% buying chocolate at the till at a newsagents or petrol station and 35% adding chips or onion rings to the side of their pub or restaurant meal.

The findings showed that young people are even more likely to be exposed to upselling, with 18-24 year-olds experiencing it 166 times each year – nearly every other day – and going on to consume an extra 750 calories per week as a result. This could lead to an estimated weight gain of 11lbs (5kg) over the course of a year.

 

Full report: Size matters: the impact of upselling on weight gain. | The Royal Society for Public Health | Slimming World

See also: BBC News: Public ‘tricked’ into buying unhealthy food