Deprivation strongly linked to mortality

Report from the Office for National Statistics reveals “sizeable and highly significant” absolute and relative inequalities in avoidable mortality between those living in the most and least deprived areas.

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Main points

  • Avoidable, amenable and preventable mortality is strongly related to area deprivation in England and in Wales.
  • In England in 2015 there were 16,686 deaths from avoidable causes in the most deprived areas whereas there were less than half that number (7,247 deaths) in the least deprived areas.
  • In the most deprived areas of Wales there were 1,054 deaths from avoidable causes in 2015, compared with 509 deaths in the least deprived areas.
  • Absolute and relative inequalities in avoidable mortality between those living in the most and least deprived areas were sizeable and highly significant, but the excess was larger for males than females in all cases.
  • The largest relative inequality in avoidable mortality was for deaths from respiratory diseases which were 4.8 times (males) and 7.7 times (females) more likely in the most deprived populations compared with the least deprived.
  • The largest absolute difference in avoidable mortality between the most and least deprived deciles was from cardiovascular disease and cancer.

Full report: Measuring Socioeconomic inequalities in avoidable mortality in England and Wales: 2015

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Big rise in male hospital admissions due to eating disorders

An analysis of NHS Digital data by The Guardian shows the number of men being hospitalised with an eating disorder has risen by 70% since 2011 | OnMedica

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It reveals that the number of hospital diagnoses in male over-19s rose from 480 in 2010-2011 to 818 between April 2015 and March 2016.

The rate of increase was slightly higher among older men, at 70% for the 41-60 age group, compared with 67% in the 26-40 category and 63% among 19- to 25-year-olds. In the same period, there was a 61% increase among women aged 19 to 25 and a 76% rise among middle-aged women.

Dr William Rhys Jones, from the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ eating disorders faculty, told the newspaper that pressure for body perfection is on the rise for men of all ages, which is a risk factor for developing an eating disorder. “Images of unhealthy male body ideals in the media place unnecessary pressure on vulnerable people who strive for acceptance through the way they look.”

Read the full commentary here

Are we living longer?

Health profile for England. A report combining Public Health England (PHE) data and knowledge on the health of the population in England in 2017.

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This report focuses on the question ‘are we living longer, and are the extra years spent in good or bad health?’.

It summarises and interprets current trends in health outcomes in England, in particular:

  • life expectancy
  • health life expectancy
  • morbidity
  • mortality

It explores the impact of risk factors on these health outcomes and considers how England compares with other developed countries. It summarises inequalities in outcomes and the impact of the social determinants of health.

The 7 chapters can be read alone or as a series:

  1. Life expectancy, healthy life expectancy and years lived in poor health
  2. Major causes of death and how they have changed
  3. Trends in morbidity and risk factors
  4. European comparisons
  5. Health inequalities
  6. Social determinants of health
  7. Emerging health protection issues

Full report available here

Dementia numbers set to rise to 1.2 million by 2040 in England & Wales

Experts are predicting that there will be 1.2 million people in England and Wales living with dementia by 2040 – a rise of 57% from 2016 – due to increased life expectancy.

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A study  published in The BMJ  says that although the number of newly diagnosed cases of dementia is falling, the overall prevalence will increase substantially as people live longer and deaths from other causes, such as heart disease, continue to decline.

The team of researchers  based at University College London (UCL) and the University of Liverpool, set out to predict the future burden of dementia with more certainty by developing a mathematical model that takes account of disease trends and death rates alongside the effects of increasing life expectancy.  They calculated that there were currently 767,000 people living with dementia in England and Wales and the number would increase to more than 1.2 million by 2040.

Full story at OnMedica

Full reference: Ahmadi-Abhari, S et al.  Temporal trend in dementia incidence since 2002 and projections for prevalence in England and Wales to 2040: modelling study BMJ Published 05 July 2017

 

 

Large health inequalities across England revealed

New report shows there are stark differences in how long people in different parts of England can expect to live a healthy life. | ONS | via Cancer Research UK

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report from the Office of National Statistics (ONS) shows that people in areas with the highest healthy life expectancy will live longer without health problems than people in areas with the lowest expectancy.

Life expectancy in England has been increasing consistently since 1951, but varies by location. Men living in the least deprived areas live on average 9.2 years longer than men living in the most deprived areas. For women this gap is 7.1 years. There is an even greater difference in the quality of those years lived. Healthy life expectancy (HLE), or the number of years one could expect to live in good health, in England is 64.1 years for women and 63.4 for men.

Men living in the most deprived areas of England can expect to lead a healthy life for nearly 19 years less than men living in the least deprived.  The difference for women is 19.6 years. Heath inequalities between the north and south of England were also highlighted, as 6 of the top 7 areas with the highest healthy life expectancy were in the south, and all of the top 6 areas with the lowest expectancy were in the north.

The report looked at information on health-related lifestyle factors such as smoking, obesity, physical activity and diet.

Full report: An overview of lifestyles and wider characteristics linked to Healthy Life  Expectancy in England: June 2017 | ONS

Adult smoking habits in the UK: 2016

Cigarette smoking among adults including the proportion of people who smoke including demographic breakdowns, changes over time, and e-cigarettes. | Office for National Statistics

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Main points

  • In 2016, of all adult survey respondents in the UK, 15.8% smoked which equates to around 7.6 million in the population.
  • Of the constituent countries, 15.5% of adults in England smoked; for Wales, this figure was 16.9%; Scotland, 17.7% and Northern Ireland, 18.1%.
  • In the UK, 17.7% of men were current smokers which was significantly higher in comparison with 14.1% of women.
  • Those aged 18 to 24 in the UK experienced the largest decline in smoking prevalence of 6.5 percentage points since 2010.
  • Among current smokers in Great Britain, men smoked 12.0 cigarettes each day on average whereas women smoked 11.0 cigarettes each day on average; these are some of the lowest levels observed since 1974.
  • In Great Britain, 5.6% of respondents in 2016 stated they currently used an e-cigarette in 2016, which equates to approximately 2.9 million people in the population.

Access the full document: Adult smoking habits in the UK: 2016

Trends in diagnosis and treatment for people with dementia in the UK 2005-2015

Donegan, K. et al. The Lancet Public Health | Published online: 23 February 2017

Image shows proportion of CPRD (Clinical Practice Research Datalink) population diagnosed with dementia in the UK by region between July, 2005, and June, 2015

Background: The objectives of this study were to describe changes in the proportion of people diagnosed with dementia and the pharmacological treatments prescribed to them over a 10 year period from 2005 to 2015 at a time of UK policy strategies and prioritisation of dementia. We aimed to explore the potential impact of policy on dementia care.

Interpretation: Over the 10 years studied, there is evidence of a sustained positive change in diagnosis rates of dementia and in the quality of drug treatment provided to those diagnosed. The prescription of antidementia drugs more than doubled and the prescription of potentially hazardous antipsychotics halved after the introduction of national dementia strategies. These data support the formulation and delivery of national policy to improve the quality of care for people with dementia.

Read the full article here